Although many of the studies highlighted above were published in the 1980s and 1990s, diuretics are still widely abused in sport (and among the most prescribed therapeutic agents). Few studies of the effects of diuretics on athletes have been published recently because in recent times, most studies assessing doping agents and exercise and sport have focused on newer drugs and methods of performance enhancement. Diuretic use for the masking of other prohibited substances remains a serious problem, however.
Diuretics are therapeutic agents that are used to increase the rate of urine flow and sodium excretion in order to adjust the volume and composition of body fluids or to eliminate excess of fluids from tissues (). They are used in clinical therapy for the treatment of various diseases and syndromes, including hypertension, heart failure, liver cirrhosis, renal failure, kidney and lung diseases, as well as a more general reduction of the adverse effects of salts and/or water retention (). Diuretics were first banned in sport (both in competition and out of competition) in 1988 because they can be used by athletes for two primary reasons. First, their potent ability to remove water from the body can cause a rapid weight loss that can be required to meet a weight category in sporting events. Second, they can be used to mask the administration of other doping agents by reducing their concentration in urine primarily because of an increase in urine volume. The urine dilution effect of diuretics also allows them to be classified as masking agents and precludes their use both in and out of competition. Some diuretics also cause a masking effect by altering the urinary pH and inhibiting the passive excretion of acidic and basic drugs in urine (; ; ; ).
"To the extent that the public perceives that a PED [performance enhancing drug] reduces the role of skill and replaces it by chemically induced brute strength and endurance, it is likely to lose interest in the sports in which it is used. The harm would be primarily financial, but this in turn could lead to the demise of professional leagues and contests...
Before trying to prove that drugs serve no positive role in sport, it would be beneficial to outline the history of drug use in sport. In the early 1950's, athletes in the eastern European world were already using crude forms of testosterone injections to increase their strength (American Academy of Pediatrics 2). News of this new drug spread when Russian weightlifters shattered previous weight lifting records with consistency. Dr. John Ziegler was able to confirm this rumor, and upon return to the U.S., promised to give American athletes the same edge. In 1956, he developed Dianabol, the early derivative of testosterone (Taylor 10). Its use soon spread among many countries throughout the world. Early users included mainly bodybuilders, weightlifters, football players, and discus, shot put, or javelin throwers who relied heavily on bulk and strength for increased performance. Scientists soon discovered that by altering testosterone, the side effects could be removed or significantly lessened. The result was the creation of anabolic steroids. By the late 1950's and early 1960's all of the current anabolic steroids had already been manufactured in laboratories. By the 1980's non-athletes discovered the body-enhancing properties of steroids and the black market began to flourish for the illegal production and distribution for non-medical purposes. Anabolic steroids were used legally to treat a limited number of medical conditions that cause a degeneration of muscle tissue such as AIDS and certain cancers. European attitudes continue to be quite liberal in comparison to the strict bans that are enforced in the U.S. and Canada. Today, recent statistics report that there are over three million American athletes, male and female, who are using steroids to enhance performance in sports (AAP). A recent article published by the National Clearinghouse for Alcohol and Drug Information (NCADI.) has stated that 90% of professional athletes have at one time taken some form of illegal performance-enhancing drug. (NCADI. 2)
Athletes use drugs in sports ..
The fierce competitive nature of the modern sports' world, in combination with society's demand for excellence, has caused athletes to seek alternative means to enhance their performance. Today's athlete faces an increasingly difficult choice: to use drugs to enhance performance or to accept what could amount to a competitive handicap. It is a choice, which carries significant ethical considerations. Should athletes be permitted to make this choice, or should society, through the medium of sports' governing bodies strictly enforce the ban on performance enhancing drugs? Some argue that the choice should be left to the athletes in order to respect their individual choice above any ethical considerations. Others choose to ban performance-enhancing drugs with the intention of protecting the athlete against the potentially harmful consequences of his or her own actions. Athletes who are caught using illegal drugs are often exposed through the media and negatively discriminated against by the sporting community. The result is that the athlete faces a double bind conflict: he or she is pressured to produce superhuman performance, yet must remain ethically human while preparing for them. The ramifications of cheating in sport are numerous and all negative in nature. Beyond the negative aspect which cheating in sports presents, are dangerous physiological and psychological side effects, which the athlete faces when, using performance enhancing drugs such as anabolic and androgenic steroids. At the heart of anti-drug use in sport debates, lies the theory that drugs sabotage the true intention of sport. The continuing saga of drug use in sport is not only unethical but also negatively impacts the athlete, as well as the sporting community. In addition, the socio-cultural factors, which contribute to the use of steroids, will also be discussed.
Drug Usage In Sports Physical Education Essay
Athletes nowadays have more training facilities than ever before to improve their skills, but some of them have decided to choose the easy path to success which is using performance enhancing drugs. The use of drugs that enhance performance in sports is an issue that sports organizers have taken more seriously in the past decade. Since the aim of athletes in competitive sports is to win, some are willing to win by all means even if it is unethical. The use of drugs is not only common in ...
In recent months, the media has been flooded with numerous cases of performance enhancing drugs being used by professional sports clubs. Initially it was the Essendon football club that was accused of taking illegal drugs. However of late the Melbourne football club and several NRL teams have also found themselves under scrutiny. Any team or individual found to be taking performance enhancing drugs should receive a swift and severe penalty and be given no leniency in the punishment. Guilty clubs or individuals should be held accountable and be used as an example to other clubs so they avoid committing the same offence. Penalties should include the team being stripped of all of their points, severe fines and suspensions. These penalties should be harsh enough to act as a deterrent to all other drug takers.
Drug use in sport has, over the past two decades, soared in popularity despite being illegal. An example of a high profile sports person that has given in to the temptation to break the rules would be Lance Armstrong. Evidence of his drug use only came to light recently and his many achievements as a sportsperson have been overturned as a result. There have been a number of high profile names and clubs connected with drug taking such as Manly, Cronulla, Newcastle, North Queensland, Canberra and Penrith from the NRL that have been accused of using illegal drugs. There is an ongoing investigation into the Essendon football club in which many players and staff have been interviewed about whether they have been taking drugs or not. So far no conclusions have been drawn but it is making the sport look bad so action is urgently required. They should be fined either way for bringing the sport into disrepute.
The AFL needs to take a serious look into their anti-drugs policies so that they can have the authority to punish teams and players who don't follow the rules. This recent drugs saga is driving the fans away from the sport. This is not ...
substances from use within sports for ..
For most players today, sportsmanship has secondary importance. Fairness, generosity, courtesy and decorum have given way to doping, bribing, ball tempering in the case of cricket, widespread drug use, undignified behaviour and abusive and condescending attitude towards fellow players.