The Great Republic: Presidents and States of the United States

Thomas Paine (or Pain; February 9, 1737 [O.S

Microfilm copies of documents pertaining to Virginia and includes correspondence, resolutions, minutes, and acts. The expenses of the Virginia delegates to Congress are also included. Originals in the Library of Congress and the Virginia State Library. Twelve of the reels consist mainly of Thomas Jefferson letters, etc., in the papers of Congress and concern foreign affairs, finances, national debt, military affairs, and Virginia State Papers. (#3077 & etc.)

The papers of the Randolph family of "Edgehill" and those of the allied Nicholas and Jefferson families. The bulk of the material falls after 1790, but there are several items relating to the revolutionary period, including Charles Tappan's engraving (1829) of Jefferson's draft of the Declaration of Independence showing changes made by John Adams and Benjamin Franklin. There is also an exchange of correspondence between Martha Jefferson and her friends regarding Jefferson's voyage to France. (#1397)

The papers of Angelica Schuyler Church contain correspondence with family members and several notable figures in American history including Thomas Jefferson, Alexander Hamilton, the Marquis de Lafayette, General Philp Schuyler, and French foreign minister Talleyrand. There are also one or two letters each from George Washington, Abraham Lincoln, Winfield Scott, Justus Erich Bollman, Charles James Fox, and the Baron von Steuben, as well as a brief third person note from Louis Philippe or one of his brothers. Topics include United States politics and foreign affairs; the French Revolution; the imprisonment of Lafayette at Olmutz; the Whiskey Rebellion; the War of 1812, particularly the invasion of Canada; travel in Poland, Austria in 1794, and England in 1840; trade in America and India, and family and personal matters. (#11245)

The Sexual Abuse of Black Men under American Slavery

Appointing a commission to investigate the Thompson proposal, Lincoln referred its findings to Francis P. Blair, Sr. Endorsing a government contract with the Chiriqui Improvement Company even more strongly than Edwards had, the senior Blair believed the main purpose of such a contract should be to utilize the area controlled by Thompson to "solve" the black question. He repeated Jefferson's view that blacks would ultimately have to be deported from the United States, reviewed Lincoln's own endorsement of resettlement, and discussed the activities of his son, Missouri Representative Francis P. Blair, Jr., on behalf of deportation. Blair concluded his lengthy report with a recommendation that Henry T. Blow, US Minister to Venezuela, be sent to Chiriqui to make an examination for the government.45

In 1787 an enslaved man in Maryland raped a free black woman

It was as President of the United States that Thomas Jefferson had the greatest impact on the Indian nations of North America. He pursued an Indian policy that had two main ends. First, Jefferson wanted to guarantee the security of the United States and so sought to bind Indian nations to the United States through treaties. The aim of these treaties was to acquire land and facilitate trade, but most importantly to keep them allied with the United States and not with European powers, namely England in Canada and Spain in the regions of Florida, the Gulf Coast and lands west of the Mississippi River. Secondly, Jefferson used the networks created by the treaties to further the program of gradual "civilization." His Federalist predecessors had begun this program, but it was completely in keeping with Jefferson's Enlightenment thinking. Through treaties and commerce, Jefferson hoped to continue to get American Indians to adopt European agricultural practices, shift to a sedentary way of life, and free up hunting grounds for further white settlement. The desire for land raised the stakes of the "civilization program." Jefferson told his agents never to coerce Indian nations to sell lands. The lands were theirs as long as they wished, but he hoped to accelerate the process. In a letter to William Henry Harrison, written as the diplomatic crisis leading to the unfolded, Jefferson suggested that if the various Indian nations could be encouraged to purchase goods on credit, they would likely fall into debt, which they could relieve through the sale of lands to the government. The "civilization program" would thus aid the Indians in accordance with Enlightenment principles and at the same time further white interests. American Indian peoples were divided as to how to respond to Jefferson's policies. The Shawnee chief Black Hoof embraced the "civilization program," and he and many Shawnee settled within the state of Ohio and lived as farmers, while the Shawnee war leader Tecumseh took a different course and led the formation of a pan-Indian resistance movement against the United States government in the years prior to the War of 1812. Some of the Indian nations in the South also accepted the "civilization program" and eventually became known as the "Five Civilized Tribes." Many in the Creek and Cherokee nations built towns and plantations, and some individuals held African-American slaves just as their white neighbors. Yet many southern Indians remained skeptical of "civilization" and joined Tecumseh's movement. Among the Creeks, a distinct anti-white resistance movement called the Red Sticks rose against the United States and the Creek nation itself during the War of 1812.

The Troubling Reason the Electoral College Exists - TIME

The politics of the "Old Republic," although witnessing the greatest growth and settlement of the country, was simply dominated by the issue of slavery, which in the end tore the nation apart. It is therefore no distraction to note for each new State or Territory whether it is slave or free. The Missouri Compromise (1820), the Compromise of 1850, and the Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854) were all about the distribution of States or Territories open to slavery, although it may not have been clear until the Missouri Compromise itself (Jefferson's "fire bell in the night") just how polarizing and dangerous the issue was going to be. The "American Colonization Society," to repatriate freed slaves to Liberia in Africa, was founded in 1821; and the Abolitionist "American Anti-Slavery Society" was founded in 1833. Thereafter, the ferocity of the recriminations and the insulting level of the rhetoric in the public debates, even the violence on the floor of Congress, is now hard to believe, though they still cast their shadows in the politics of the 2000's.

Of all the Revolutionary founders, Thomas Jefferson has figured the mostprominently in blacks' attempts to constitute themselves as Americans. Hislife, in public and private, has long served as a vehicle for analyzing andcritiquing the central dilemma at the heart of American democracy: the desireto create a society based on liberty and equality runs counter to the desire tomaintain white supremacy. Others of the founders held slaves, but no otherfounder drafted the charter for American freedom. Jefferson, of course, did notinvent the ideas contained in the Declaration. But it is a supremeunderstatement to say that his manner of expressing them has been enormouslyinflueluential.

The story comes to us from the female victim in the incident, Elizabeth Amwood

A Guide to the Revolutionary War Collections …

Diaries, journals, legal papers, and correspondence relating to Wickham's (1763-1839) personal affairs and to his law practice in Williamsburg and Richmond. His diaries contain a record of his travels in Europe in 1784 with observations about various people, places, and countries; there are lengthy comments on various cathedrals and on French art. Volume II of the diaries contain notes on legal cases tried in Williamsburg, 1785, and a record of fees due him from the Hustings Court at Elizabeth City, 1787. Expenses for his European trip are recorded in Miscellaneous Books, January 10-March 1, 1784 (?). In his Notes and Memorandum Books and the Miscellaneous Books there are legal notes, 1766-1780, some critical remarks on Jefferson's Notes on the State of Virginia, and the draft for two speeches, one critical of the Virginia Criminal Code as revised by Thomas Jefferson and George Wythe, and the other on the power to regulate commerce. (#409)