Women’s role during the First World War reflected their social and economic position. Feminists were not satisfied with the idea that women’s work was classified as less important than men’s work. Besides, the working class women who were the representatives of the first wave feminism promoted the ideas of feminism at work and in homes, in stores, halls and local newspapers. They believed in their rights and were focused on the promotion of collective actions aimed at realization of their agenda. However, men opposed women’s involvement into male jobs during the First World War. Male trade unions defended the division of labor based on gender (Gillis & Hollows, 2008).
Women’s efforts during the Second World War were focused on more radical changes. Unlike in the First World War, during the Second World War women’s position was more stable. The governments allowed women to join the armed forces and be involved in the war-related production. All women aged under 40 years old were divided into two categories: mobile and immobile. Mobile women were allowed to join army and carry out war work duties. Immobile women were responsible for caring children and elderly people. Many of them were involved in voluntary work, either in industry or in voluntary organizations (Howie, 2010). Women were allowed to work 16 hours a day and perform men’s duties. However, women were paid less than men. Besides, they were discriminated in the workplace. Thus, women played an important role in the war effort, although their position in society was still less valuable, comparing with men’s position (Howie, 2010; Gillis & Hollows, 2008).
The ideas of Qasim Amin reflected those who closely linked the emancipation of women and rejection of veiling to national movements for independence. For this group, the changing roles of women in society were important ways to convince the overseas colonial rulers that their subject nations were ready to govern themselves. Women were encouraged to be symbols of the new state. Those who resisted these ideas of social progress were mocked. Turkish elites, for example, mocked women covered in black, calling them "beetles." Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, who began to build a secular nation-state in 1923, denounced the veil, calling it demeaning and a hindrance to civilized nation. But he did not outlaw it. Shortly after, in Iran in the 1930s, Reza Shah Pahlevi did, issuing a proclamation banning the veil outright. For many women, this decree in its suddenness was not liberating but frightening. Some refused to leave home for fear of having their veil torn from their face by the police.
However in 1870 after her marriage, Mary Johnsonmoved to West Bromwich and was succeeded as secretary by Eliza Mary Sturge who lived at 17 Frederick Street (long ago renamed ‘Frederick Road’). She was the 28-year-old daughter of Charles Sturge, alderman of the city, brother of Joseph Sturge. The latter was by then dead, but very much alive in the Birmingham municipal memory. In the 1820s he had been one of the most vociferous campaigners against slavery and had been secretary of the Birmingham Anti-Slavery Society – even going out to the West Indies to inspect conditions there for himself. In the 1840s Joseph Sturge had been a leading campaigner in favour of the repeal of the Corn Laws, had throughout his life been an ardent supporter of free trade, peace and temperance, an advocate of manhood suffrage, founder of the Complete Suffrage Union, but, like John Bright, was not prepared to include women in any proposed enlarged franchise.
Essay on the gender difference in history: women in China and Japan.
430. NATIONAL UNION OF WOMEN’S SUFFRAGE SOCIETIES with the Men’s League (Portsmouth branches) – Programme for an evening meeting that began with a musical recital, followed by the singing of suffrage songs (the words are printed – one of them is by Margaret O’Shea, sister of the secretary of the Portsmouth NUWSS society and then a speech by Lady Balfour followed by more singing and then a closing speech by Alice Abadam. Interestingly the Vote of Thanks is seconded by Alderman Sanders, LCC, who in 1908 was Labour parliamentary candidate for Portsmouth and whose wife, Beatrice, was financial secretary to the WSPU. I think this programme may date from 1908 – because there is a mention at its foot of an Exhibition of Banners (Fuller’s tea Rooms, Palmerston Road) – and such exhibitions were common after the June 1908 Hyde Park rally. 1 sheet -good £180
Essay on role of women in society - Get Help From …
397. MCLEOD, Irene Rutherford Chatto and Windus 1916 (7th ed)A collection of poems. An introductory note states that some had been previously published in, amongst other journals, ‘Votes for Women’. Irene McLeod had been a member of the WSPU’s Young Purple, White and Green Association and of its Drummers’ Union. Very good £20
318. THE EMPLOYMENT COMMITTEE OF THE INCORPORATED ASSOCIATION OF HEADMISTRESSES OF PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN CO-OPERATION WITH THE MINISTRY OF LABOUR HMSO 1931Paper covers – 14pp – good – withdrawn from the Women’s Library £3
Essay on role of women in society
The Constitution of India provides equal rights and opportunities to women. It does not make any discrimination on the grounds of sex. Indian women are also responding positively to this changed socio-political situation. This does not mean that our women are completely free from problems. On the contrary, the changing situation is causing them new problems. They are now beset with new stresses and strains. Some of the major problems haunting the modern women may briefly be analysed here.