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Miller (1958, 1959) agreed with Cohen that there was a delinquency subculture, ..

Delinquency and focal concerns
• He concluded that delinquency derives as a result of acting out (often exaggerated) focal concerns
• Subculture stems from the need of low skilled labour, these people need to be able to endure a repetitive routine, as a result the focal concerns provide a balance for the dissatisfaction of work
Evaluation
• Miller believed the lower class appeared to follow their own focal concerns with disregard to mainstream culture.

Over the past few years, an interesting focus has developed among our youth subculture in American society today. I have been interested in how the raver subculture has come into existence, and how they are able to maintain their unanimity and cohesiveness. This subculture mainly consists of people who go to "raves," also known as, underground dance parties where people go to hear "techno" (electronically produced) music and have intense experiences, which they feel are self-transforming. The ravers use an emotionally laden jargon to attempt to explain the intensity of their experiences to the unconverted. I felt that by researching the rave subculture I could come to a conclusion as to why ravers are choosing to use ecstasy as their choice of drug and the effects of it.

There has been a great deal of research into how the rave subculture came into being from organization around music, to drugs, and countercultural norms and deviant practices in society. While there have been efforts to look at the interrelations between language, culture, and identity, most of this research in these areas has not looked into the process of language formation and the ways in which existing languages are altered to fit new constantly changing roles, perceptions, and identities. However, my research will put emphasize on how in this subculture there is a constant presence of innovation and experimentation involved in language as well as, the illegal use of ecstasy. I will also focus on how the use of ecstasy is shifting the direction of social change.

Becker, Howard S. 1967.

Willis, Paul E., Profane Culture (London & Boston:Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1978) [a study of subcultural attitudes andpractices, focusing on bikers and hippies, with extensive treatment of subjectssuch as social and political positions, values, music, drugs, style, creativity,etc;301.2209/WIL].

Free police corruption papers, essays, and research papers.

Subculture: Marijuana in the United States Fatima Alikhan ENG 122 Professor Kenneth Newton Monday May 23, 2010 The United States has an approved list of drugs that are considered legal and illegal that create adverse side effects and hold diverse political views. Marijuana is a substance that popular media holds in a negative undertone while other drugs such as valium and alcohol are supported, if not glorified. Popular media is a powerful tool that gathers a mass of people and provides all types of information.

History of the hippie movement - Wikipedia

Cultural characteristics as a continuum. There is a tendency to stereotype cultures as being one way or another (e.g., individualistic rather than collectivistic). Note, however, countries fall on a continuum of cultural traits. Hofstede’s research demonstrates a wide range between the most individualistic and collectivistic countries, for example—some fall in the middle.

Hofstede’s Dimensions. Gert Hofstede, a Dutch researcher, was able to interview a large number of IBM executives in various countries, and found that cultural differences tended to center around four key dimensions:

A subcultural theoretical framework is thus crucial to understand illegal drug use

What Is Stimulant-Induced Psychosis? | Dual Diagnosis

Each gang has a of its own, although it may not be very different from the culture of other gangs. Using of culture, gang members teach one another - formally and informally - what the customs of the gang are (i.e., how to dress, how to behave with women - or men), and they possess specific knowledge about the gang (i.e., traditions, initiation rites, territory, history). The culture of a gang is imparted from one generation to the next through a process called socialization.


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(1972) studied the youth of East London in the early 1970s. He examined the immediate and the wider context to determine how two different youth subcultures reacted to the changes occurring in their community. He suggested that the reaction was to the new ideology of affluence. They wanted to show that they had money and knew how to spend it. In contrast, looked back to the more traditional working class community. Each generation tries to find employment or adapts to unemployment. But the 1920s had very different economic circumstances to later decades. Cohen argued that youth develop a cultural style as a means of coping with their particular circumstances and of resisting the dominant values of society. This casts working class youth as the standard bearers of class struggle. There is little in real terms that youth can do to change society, but resistance offers subjective satisfaction which can be shown through style: the clothes, haircuts, music and language of the different youth cultures. Cohen argued that these styles are not meaningless, but are deeply layered in meaning. This is an application of Subcultural Theory which synthesised the of Marxism with the . The approach matched that of the Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies at Birmingham University (see Crow: 1997). This approach places emphasis on the contents of youth culture and on the differences produced by class background. The assumption is that a capitalist society attempts to achieve by using the cultural values of society for their own benefit. The domination of the adults is enforced through the system of mortgages, credit cards, and family commitments, and they are seduced into accepting the relative security of capitalism. But the youth are relatively free of long term commitment or responsibility for a family and, with many unemployed, the youth are the weakest point in the structure of hegemony.

Question The professional subculture of journalism is made up of several components or elements, some of which push a drug society in the direction of bias and

Societies define not only the meaning of drugs but also the meaningof the drug experience; these definitions differ radically amongdifferent societies and among subgroups and subsultures withinthe same society. Social groups and cultures define what kindof drug taking is appropriate. They define which drugs are acceptableand which are not. They define who takes drugs and why. They decidewhat amounts of each drug are socially acceptable. They spellout which social situations are approved for drug use and whichare not. They define what drugs do, what their actions and effectson people will be. Right or wrong, Each will exert a powerfulinfluence on what drugs actually do. The fact that heroin is attributedwith a fantastic power to enslave actually helps to give herointhe power to enslave; the "effect" does not rest completelywithin the biochemical properties of the drug (Young 1971, p.43). The effective role of placebos in medical therapy has beenunderscored in numerous discussions and research. (As one psychopharmacologistwryly remarked: "The lethal dosage of placebo is unknown"[Claridge 1970, p. 26].) The fact that marijuana tends to havea negative and inhibitory effect on the sexual activity of cagedrats and a positive and disinhibitory impact on sex in humansindicates the overwhelming role played by social expectationsand definitions.